1. Yarn or the fibre material wether it be wool or a synthetic fibre
2. The primary backing, through which a needle with the yarn is thread, to get the finished carpeted surface.
3. All have a backing. You would have the primary backing fixed to the secondary backing. This is for increased durability as the foot traffic forces it to rub against the hard floor underneath. Some carpets, for example carpet tiles which are bonded to bitumen have a much tougher backing, so traditional underlays are not needed, saving on cost, and time.
Each of these is an important factor in the final quality and durability of the carpet, therefore each should be considered when choosing the correct carpet for your home or office flooring. All carpets, whatever the style, will use the identical primary backing, secondary banking and adhesive bonding. The manufacturing process will also be nearly the same every time. Even for carpet tiles and, entrance matting the process is almost the same. Just the variables mentioned which affect each style and design. It will be tufted on a closed machine, where the top backing at the one end, will be fed into the part of the machine where the sewing is takes place. Various needles will be inserted as they pull the yarn through the machine. A small hook called a looper, will grab the yarn and as the needle is retrieved, the material stays on the primary backing forming a small loop, and therefore the carpet itself. The way a cut pile made is similar, but a sharp blade attached to the looper grabs the yarn and cuts it where the top of the loop would be.
The yarn is the primary factor of a carpet that will make the biggest difference in quality. This is including the type of material used (wether it be a natural or synthetic fibre), the density and depth of the pile, and the density of the fibre. Always consider the yrn first as this is the main factor that determines the quality.
There are two main categories of yarn. Yarn made from synthetic fibres and yarn made from natural fibres.
Such as wool which is a high priced, quality yarn.
Silk, a delicate yarn.
Sisal is not that common. Itís a rough yarn from hard natural fibres taken from the sisal plan - a type of agave.
Nylon. Itís recognized as the best quality synthetic yarn as it has a greater durability than itís counterparts. If you step on a nylon carpet, it will spring back into itís original state similar to as a wool carpet would. This is what you call memory. You may have heard of memory foam mattresses which have the same effect. This is definitely the best choice for cut pile carpets.
Polyester. Used to a lesser extent. Itís in the middle price range bracket. Polyester has some of nylon's qualities.
Polypropylene is a cheaper alternative, generally used for commercial or Berber carpets. A good quality yarn, not at the same level of nylon, but with the cost advantage.
When comparing carpets made up of different materials it is important you make the comparison assuming that the weight of each is equal, also identical density and manufacturing process. This gives a fair comparison. For any two different carpets that are made of different pile material but with the same weight and construction (for example pile height), the type of yarn will have the most weighing impact on the price, and certainly the quality and durability.
From the other point of view, letís look at a nylon tufted carpet with a pile height of 3mm, and 45 ounce per m2, in comparison to an olefin Berber carpet with the same 3mm pile height, but heavier at 65 ounce per m2 as the pile is more dense. This will mean the yarn weight and density are the quality defining characteristics to be concentrating on. To summarise, there are various factors to determine the quality, but remember the main criteria on the quality is the material the pile itself is made from. I hope this guide will help you make the right decision when choosing you carpets. You should now know how to compare quality when reading the manufacturers specifications.
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Article Added on Sunday, July 10, 2011
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