Thomas Jefferson was the United States minister to France following the great American, Benjamin Franklin in 1785. While acting as the French minister to the United States, Jefferson surveyed crops of agriculture in France searching for fruit trees, nut trees, grape vines, berry plants, and many other potentially useful crops that might be commercially grown in the United States. Many of these seed plants and trees were exported to the American colonists and planters for experimental growing on United States farms and plantations. In exchange to the French, many native plants of the United States were exported to France and Europe for testing. Plants and trees such as red, and black raspberries, scuppernong grapevines, muscadine grape vines, pecan tree seed, Citrus seed, and plants such as mutated cultivars of orange, lime, grapefruit, kumquat, lemon, and tangerine, that centuries before had been introduced by the Spanish colonists into Florida from Europe and Africa. Grains such as corn and the famous American tobacco products were also favorite imports to Europe. The Indian Blood peach tree produced exceptional fruit, even from planted seed, and American grapevines, wild plum and cherry trees were used as root stock for grafting fruit trees and grapevines. Mulberry trees, pawpaw trees, and strawberry plants were also exciting new plant introductions into Europe. American native nut trees such as the American chestnut, Castanea dentata, and the Chinquapin nut, Castanea pumila, as well as many species of Hickory trees, Pecan trees (Carya illinoinenis), several species of walnut trees including Juglans nigra, and the American filbert, Corylus americana (Hazlenut) were all received for commercial agricultural testing in European countries.
Thomas Jefferson made a note on his plant interests to the State of Virginia in the year 1787 #VI, "A notice of the mines and other subterranean riches, its trees, plants, fruits, etc." with his interests in "the orchards produce apples, pears, cherries, quinces, peaches, nectarines, apricots, almonds, and plumbs." Thomas Jefferson was also a learned botanist who could intelligently discuss the fruit trees, berry plants, grapevines, and nut trees in the Latinzed, scientific language with the agricultural elite authorities of his time. In his writing to the state of Virginia, he wrote: "Scarlet strawberries, Fragaria Virginiana of Millar; Whortleberries, Vaccinium uliginosum; Wild gooseberies, Ribes grossularia; Cranberries, Vaccinium oxycoccus; Black raspberries, Rubus occidentalis; Blackberries, Rubus fruticosus; Dewberries, Rubus caesius; Cloud-berries, Rubus chamaemorus."
About native wild and escaped plants, trees, and vines, Jefferson reported on wild fruits like Elderberry, Elder, Sambucus nigra; Papaw, Annona triloba" and the mulberry, proper for its food, grows kindly, pomegranates and figs. Wild cherry, Prunus Virginiana, Cherokee plumb, Punus sylvestris fructu majori, Wild plumb, Prunus sylvestris fructu minori, Clayton, Wild crab-apple, Pyrus coronaria; red mulberry, Morus rubra; Persimmon, Diospyros Virginiana.
Thomas Jefferson had a great interest in timber trees from which lumber was made into dwellings, furniture, tools, fuel, etc. He reported: "Black birch, Betula nigra; White birch, Betula alba; Beach, Fagus sylvatica; Ash, Fraxinus Americana; Fraxinus Novae Angliae, Millar; Elm, Ulmus Americana, Willow, Salix Query species?; Sweet Gum, Liquidamber styaciflua. Plane-tree, Platanus cooidentalis; Poplar liriodendron tulipifera; Populus heterophylla; Black poplar, Populus nigra; Aspen, Populus tremulus; Linden or lime, Tilia Americana; Red flowering maple, Acer rubrum; Horse-chestnut, or Buck's-eye, Aesculus pavia; Catalpa, Bignonia catalpa; Umbrella, Magnolia tripetala; Swamp laurel, Magnolia glauca; Cucumber-tree, Magnolia acuminata; Portugal bay, Laurus indica; Red Bay, Laurus borbonia; Dwarf-rose bay, Rhododendron maxiumum; Laurel of the Western country, Qu. species?"
A group of smaller trees reported by Jefferson was "Holly, Ilex aquifolium, Cockspur hawthorn, Crataegus coccinea; Spindle-tree, Euronymus Europaeus; Evergreen spindle tree, Euonymus Americanus; Candleberry myrtle, Myrica cerifera."
Oak trees were valuable to the early colonists for use in building houses, furniture, tools and fuels, Jefferson listed these as: "Black Oak, Quercus nigra; White Oak, Quercus alba; Red oak, Quercus rubra; Willow Oak, Quercus phellos; Chestnut Oak, Quercus prinus; Black jack Oak, Quercus aquatica, Clayton, Query?; Ground Oak, Quercus pumila, Clayton; Live Oak, Quercus Virginiana, Millar;
Many flowering trees were planted in Thomas Jefferson's garden estate at Monticello, such as Dogwood trees, Grancy Greybeard, Redbud tree and Locust trees listed as: "Wild pimento, Laurus benzoin; Sassafras, Laurus sassafras; Locust, Robinia pseudo-acacia; Honey-locust, Gleiditsia la; Dogwood, Cornus florida; Fringe or snowdrop tree, Chionanthus virginica; Redbud, or Judas-tree, Cercis, canadensis."
The importance of evergreens was obvious to Thomas Jefferson, and he listed them as: "Black or pitch-pine, Pinus taeda; White pine, Pinus strobus; Yellow pine, Pinus Virgincia; Spruce pine, Pinus foliis singularibus, Clayton; Hemlock spruce fir, Pinus Canadensis; Aborvitae , Thuya occidentalis; Juniper, Juniperus virginica (called cedar with us) Cypress Cupressus disticha; White cedar, Cupressus Thyoides."
Jefferson reported that many cash agricultural crops of America were of native or mysterious origin that included: "Tobacco, Nicotiana; Maize, Zea Mays; Round potatoes, Solanum tuberosum; Pumpkins, (Squash) Cucurbita pepo; Cymlings, Cucurbita verrucosa; Squashes, Cucurbita melopepo"
Besides the production of crops from native plants, Jefferson wrote that American farms produced: "wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, broom corn, and Indian corn, rice, tobacco, hemp, flax, cotton and indigo."
Long and the round potatoes, "turnips, carrots, parsneps, pumpkins, ground nuts." Ground nuts were today's peanut, Arachis hypogaea.
Thomas Jefferson listed many grasses and grains in his report to include: "Lucerne, St. Foin, Burnet, Timothy, ray and orchard grass, red, white and yellow clover, greenswerd, blue grass, and crab grass, Panic, Panicum of many species; Indian millet, Holcus laxus; Holcus striosus; Wild oat, Zizania aquatica; Wild pea, Dolichas of Clayton; Lupine, Lupinus perennis; Wild hop, Humulus lupulus."
Thomas Jefferson reported that American gardens were producing in the year 1787; "Musk melons, water melons, tomatas, okra, pomegranates, figs, and the esculent plants of Europe, Jerusalem artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus; Long potatoes, Convolvulas batatas;"
Various ornamental plants such as flowering Sweetshrub, Poke Weed Salad, Passion Flower, Jerusalem Artichoke and Tuckshoe were: "Upright honeysuckle, Azalea nudiflora; Calycanthus floridus; American aloe, Agave Virginica; Sumach Rhus, Qu species?; Poke, Phytolacca decandra; Itea Virginica; Granadillas, Maycocks, Maracocks, Passiflora incarnata; Tuchahoe, Lycoperdon tuber."
Thomas Jefferson reported useful vines: "Ivy, Hedera quinquefolia, Trumpet honeysuckle, Yellow jasmine, Bignonia sempervirens." and the seemingly insignificant "Long Moss, Tillandsia Usneoides"
Medicinal herbs such as Datura, Marshmallow, Ginseng and Jimson Weed were reported along with: "Senna, Cassia Ligustrina; Arsmart, Polygonum Sagittatum; Clivers, or goose-grass, Galium spurium; Lobelia of several species; Palma Christi, Ricinus; James-town weed, Datura Stramonium; Mallow, Mallow rotundifolia; Syrian mallow, Hibiscus moschentos; Hibiscus virginicus; Indian mallow, Sida rhombifolia; Sida abutilon; Virginia Marshmallow, Napaea hermaphrodita; Napaea dioica; Indian physic, Spiraea trifoliata; Euphoria Ipecacuanhae; Pleurisy root, Asclepias decumbens, Virginia snake-root, Aristolochia serpentaria, Black snake-root, Actaea racemosa; Seneca rattlesnake-root, Polygala Senega; Valerian, Valeriana locusta radiata; Gentiana Saponaria, Villosa and Centaurium; Ginseng, Panax quinquefolium; Angelica, Angelica sylvestris; Casava, Jatropha urens."
Thomas Jefferson was an amazing man with a genius and intelligence that helped to make the United States a great nation, not only because of his political contribution as a formulator of the United States Constitution, as a great United States minister to France and the third President of the United States, but Jefferson also was an accomplished writer and farmer.
|About Author Pat Malcolm :|
Visit TyTy Nursery to purchase the trees mentioned in this article, or many others that you may be looking for! <a href="http://www.tytyga.com" target="_blank">http://www.tytyga.com</a>
Article Source: https://www.bharatbhasha.com
Article Url: https://www.bharatbhasha.com/gardening.php/69591
Article Added on Tuesday, January 15, 2008
|Other Articles by Pat Malcolm|
The Impact Of Famous Americans On The American Native Nut Tree The Pecan Carya Illinoinensis
Historically, the native American pecan nut tree was one of the most significant plant discoveries that positively influenced U.S. agriculture and commercial food production to provide a nut product, highly nutritious, inexpensive to produce, and with a delicate distinctive flavor, unrivaled by any other nut. The pecan nut was well known by the early American Indian tribes as a food source for the American Indian families, and the Indian hunters knew that during the fall and winter, when the...
History Of Wildlife Food Nuts Berries Fruits And Acorns
For over 100 years hunting plantations have been planting fruit trees for wildlife food and shelter. Like the old English hunting plantations, today’s hunters are realizing that big deer, strong bucks and graceful does, hardy turkey, fat quail, and dove come from supplementing what would otherwise experience a very mediocre diet by planting and growing berry plants, nut trees, fruit trees and acorns from oak trees, or muscadines from grapevines.
Fruit from Japanese persimmons are among the...
History Of Grapevines
The first documentation of grapevines growing in the Americas was discovered in researching the logbook of navigator Giovanni de Verazzano, who reported in 1504 that a large white grape was vigorously growing at Cape Fear, North Carolina. The English explorer of the New World, Sir Walter Raleigh, confirmed in a letter to Arthur Barlowe in 1585, the discovery of a white grape (scuppernong), when he landed in coastal North Carolina.
The 1500's ancient discovery of native grapevines growing in...
Ogeechee Limes Pleasantly Tasting Like Citrus
The shoreline of the Ogeechee River is densely imbedded with a little known fruit tree called the, Ogeechee Lime Nyssa ogeechee, that could easily demand attention from farmers, who are looking for a secondary crop. Local landowners, and those who fish on the banks of the river, are familiar with this tree that can grow 30-40 ft. tall, and in the Fall, the leaves and the oval shaped fruit turn a brilliant scarlet in color. The fruit or berry is about 1-2 inches long and reaches the approximate...
Tissue Culture Applications To Improve Crops Of Strawberries Raspberries And Blackberries
When agricultural crops are reproduced by division after several generations, often a decline occurs in qualities such as vigor, yield, disease resistance, plant and fruit appearance and uniformity of size or shape. This condition of decline is commonly called, “run out.”
Strawberry plants have demonstrated this clonal decline (running out) for many years. After growing strawberry plants for five or more years, gardeners became accustomed to dividing a clump of plants that contained the...
History Of Persimmons Diospyros Kaki L
Japanese persimmons, ‘Diospyros kaki L.,’ were introduced into the United States from Japan by Admiral Perry who discovered the fruit growing on the coast of Southern Japan in 1851.
Most of the early Japanese persimmon introductions in 1828 were sprouted from seed in Washington, DC, but were unsuccessful, because of the unusually cold winters experienced during that period.
The USDA introduced grafted cultivars of Japanese persimmon into California and Georgia beginning in 1870, and many of...
The Ancient History Of Berry Improvement
Many of the berries grown today commercially were recently hybridized from wild berry plants and bushes that grew as native plants on many continents since ancient historical times, such as the strawberry plants, blueberry plants, raspberry plants, and leading to the development of hybrid berries grown today such as the Boysenberry plant, Loganberry plant and Youngberry plants that are crosses between, blackberry, rubus spp., and the red raspberry, Rubus idaeus, the latter hybrid berry plants...
History Of Mulberry Trees Morus Alba Morus Rubrum And Morus Nigra
Mulberry trees were well known in the ancient civilizations of the world. They were famous fruit trees, because of the delicious berry fruits that were abundantly produced by fast growing trees—loaded with huge green leaves that were eaten by livestock, along with the berries, and the leaves were used in the Orient to fatten silkworms for the silk trade. General Oglethorpe, in 1733, imported 500 white mulberry trees to Fort Frederica in Georgia to encourage silk production at the English...
Large Shade Trees Pine Oak And Maple For Shade Tree Planting And Growing
The largest living creatures that man encounters are shade trees that are handily defined as trees that produce shade protection from the sunlight. Mankind loves and respects shade trees with their cooling benefits and the many available wood products, that improve the recreational environment and offer food and shelter for wildlife, birds, insects, and other creatures. Trees are planted and grown for many purposes; for their sculptured beauty, beautiful seasonal color, and flowers. Flowering...
History Of The Mayhaw
Very little information can be found in the historical docket on the native American fruit, the mayhaw, ‘Crataegus aestivalis.’ This is true because of several factors, one being the size of the mayhaw and the bland taste of the fruit found growing in the wild state. These factors did not excite early American botanists and explorers such as William Bartram, because they did not fulfill their expectation as a classic fruit, since the native Indians ignored them. The crop generally ripened...
|Click here to see More Articles by Pat Malcolm