bharatbhasha.com
Free Articles  >>  Gardening >>  Page 93  >> 

Tissue Culture Applications To Improve Crops Of Strawberries Raspberries And Blackberries





When agricultural crops are reproduced by division after several generations, often a decline occurs in qualities such as vigor, yield, disease resistance, plant and fruit appearance and uniformity of size or shape. This condition of decline is commonly called, “run out.”

Strawberry plants have demonstrated this clonal decline (running out) for many years. After growing strawberry plants for five or more years, gardeners became accustomed to dividing a clump of plants that contained the mother plant (oldest plant) in the center and replanting the smaller daughter plants to be used as seed plants the following season. Certain genetic, undesirable changes (mutations) were brought to the surface, as seen in daughter plants; as more and more plants were continuously grown, generation after generation. Some of these corrupting mutations may be visually observed as the plant vigor decelerates (declines); the yield of strawberries is less, and sometimes the berries are misshapen; and finally, the plants become extremely susceptible to diseases caused by virus, bacteria, fungi, insect susceptibility, and nematode victimization. Agricultural researchers advised strawberry growers to discontinue old variety lines and clones and were told to buy new, certified plants that restore the vigor needed to increase yields of future strawberry gardens.

This phenomenon of strawberry decline has been experienced with other agricultural crops such as sweet potato vines, raspberry bushes, blackberry bushes or vines, and banana trees. The problem with banana trees has emerged as the greatest possible catastrophe facing modern agriculture today, since bananas, produced only by plant division and not seed, are the most popular fruit in the world and may face extremely serious setbacks, unless the efforts of scientists from Israel to “clean up” the evolved, accumulated defects by using tissue culture that could cause the commercial banana production to rebound.

Old “run out” clones of agricultural crops have in the last decade been rejuvenated to produce unprecedented yields and to restore confidence in a high quality product. Growers of agricultural, commercial, crop plants can avoid clone decline, “run out,” by buying certified plants that have been grown under strict governmental watchdog supervision, under a technique called, “tissue culture.” To “clean up” problems in weakened, flawed clones of raspberry plants, a clump of cells is taken from the growing tip of the plant called the apical meristem. These cells grow rapidly and rarely contain virus or other harmful defects and are placed within a sterile growing medium, where they grow into a clump that develops roots and a growing shoot. This micro-plant is grown into many other mother plants called “nuclear stock mother plants.” These mother plants are sent out to be multiplied over and over into certified plants by nursery propagators with a regained vigor, disease-free status and desirable qualities that were once present in the original profitable varieties.

One eclectic segment of agriculture that has been negatively impacted by clonal decline, “run out,” is the pick-your-own operation, where berry plants are not replaced often by operators with certified plants. Diseases and pests appear as a greater threat every year. This same phenomenon of disease and pest buildup is well known in home gardens where tomatoes, pepper plants, and many other vegetable plants are abandoned after a few years in favor of new soil locations. The decline of strawberry plants, raspberry plants, and blackberry plants in pick-your-own operations can not always be reversed by simply replanting the site with certified plants, unless the soil is first fumigated and sterilized. Very little attention has been paid to certify muscadine and scuppernong grape vines to be free of virus, bacteria and fungal infestations in pick-your-own operations. Those grapevines are normally multiplied by various methods other than seed planting.

Recent improvements in offering agricultural plants for certification will ultimately insure the survival of valuable berry crops like blackberry plants, raspberry plants, and strawberry plants. Crops such as banana trees that are grown in tissue culture in Israel for planting in Central America can offer hope that commercial interruption of banana fruit will be avoided. Recent tissue culture advancements have given commercial growers the security of continued profits and quality, sweet potato products to enjoy by growers and consumers.

The application of tissue culture propagation to the future of canna bulb, (rhizome), and commercial production could save growers who are floundering in complaints and indecision to restore a once important agricultural crop with a promise of future profits and a satisfied wholesale and retail customer. This application of tissue culture to future crops of every type that are grown by plant division will determine whether or not those crops will survive and not “run out.”
About Author Pat Malcolm :

Patrick A. Malcolm, owner of TyTy Nursery, has an M.S. degree in Biochemistry and has cultivated berry plants for over three decades. <a href="http://www.tytyga.com" target="_blank">http://www.tytyga.com</a>


Article Source: https://www.bharatbhasha.com
Article Url: https://www.bharatbhasha.com/gardening.php/46422


Article Added on Tuesday, August 8, 2006
LD
Other Articles by Pat Malcolm

History Of Raspberry Plants
According to Luther Burbank, who studied and hybridized raspberries and blackberries more than any other horticulturalist, and wrote his classical 8 volume treatise on Small Fruits and Fruit Improvement in 1921; the red raspberry plant was cultivated in Europe for centuries, growing wild from Greece to Spain and to the North from Norway to Sweden. Red Raspberry, Rubus idaeus, is a native berry bush to Turkey and was gathered by the people inhabiting Troy, (Troas, Turkey) from vines growing at...

History Of The Strawberry And The Strawberry Tree
It is difficult to trace the ancient history of the strawberry plant or strawberry tree, because there are so many different, complex, undefined species, and they have evolved in so many different places and countries. Pliny described the strawberry tree, Arbutus in his early writings of the Roman culture in the first century, AD. Strawberry trees, Cudrania tricuspidata, have been known since antiquity and have been so named because the berries growing on the trees resemble the familiar...

The Ancient History Of Berry Improvement
Many of the berries grown today commercially were recently hybridized from wild berry plants and bushes that grew as native plants on many continents since ancient historical times, such as the strawberry plants, blueberry plants, raspberry plants, and leading to the development of hybrid berries grown today such as the Boysenberry plant, Loganberry plant and Youngberry plants that are crosses between, blackberry, rubus spp., and the red raspberry, Rubus idaeus, the latter hybrid berry plants...

History Of Blackberry Plants
Blackberries were perceived by the ancient cultures as being a wild plant, and historical accounts for a backyard culture of blackberry bushes are few. The Greeks used the blackberry as a remedy for Gout, and the Romans made a tea from the leaves of the blackberry plant to treat various illnesses. John Bartram, the early American explorer, botanist, and writer founded the first United States Botanical Garden, in 1728. In the early American colonies, William Bartram in his book, Travels, noted...

American Fruit Trees Nut Trees Berry Plants Grapevines And Native Plants Promoted By Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson was the United States minister to France following the great American, Benjamin Franklin in 1785. While acting as the French minister to the United States, Jefferson surveyed crops of agriculture in France searching for fruit trees, nut trees, grape vines, berry plants, and many other potentially useful crops that might be commercially grown in the United States. Many of these seed plants and trees were exported to the American colonists and planters for experimental growing...

Canna Lily Sales Face A Chaotic Future
Many agricultural plants that are reproduced by vegetative division face a mysterious problem that results in a decline in the clone vigor, and most farmers and nurserymen claim that the plant crop has “run out.” A number of factors adversely affect the plant clone to the point that it becomes unproductive and uneconomical to continue growing. A technique has been discovered that has revitalized the agricultural crops such as strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, sweet potato, banana, and a...

Large Shade Trees Pine Oak And Maple For Shade Tree Planting And Growing
The largest living creatures that man encounters are shade trees that are handily defined as trees that produce shade protection from the sunlight. Mankind loves and respects shade trees with their cooling benefits and the many available wood products, that improve the recreational environment and offer food and shelter for wildlife, birds, insects, and other creatures. Trees are planted and grown for many purposes; for their sculptured beauty, beautiful seasonal color, and flowers. Flowering...

The Chinese Strawberry Tree Chinese Mulberry Tree Cudrania Tricuspidata And European Strawberry Tree Arbutus Unedo
The Chinese Strawberry Tree (Chinese Mulberry Tree), Cudrania tricuspidata, has been extensively planted in American because of its huge potential for bearing unique red strawberries that, once picked from the tree, have the appearance of a giant raspberry. The Chinese Strawberry fruit is more rounded than a mulberry, which is usually elongated. The Chinese Strawberry Tree is sometimes called a Chinese mulberry, because in China, the strawberry tree leaf looks like a miniature version of a...

Modern Fruit Trees Evolved From Ancient Historical Roots
The rise and fall of ancient empires has developed parallel also to the establishment and destruction of advanced fruit tree orchards. Ancient fruit trees such as olive tree orchards increased the wealth and health of nations by feeding the populations, providing nutritious olive oil to light lamps in ancient houses at night, as food and a cooking medium, and for the purpose of anointing Kings and Queens. Olive trees could not produce continuous crops unless the gardeners growing them could...

History Of The Loquat
Loquats, ‘Eriobotrya japonica,’ are documented to have been grown in Japan around 1100 AD. Some botanists have suggested that the first plantings of the loquat trees may have come from China originally and later were introduced into Japan. The loquat tree was widely distributed in Europe after 1712, but early records show that it came to the United States in the mid-1800’s. This prolific plant is now established firmly as a seed-borne naturalized fruit tree in hundreds of countries, even in...

Click here to see More Articles by Pat Malcolm
Publishers / Webmasters
Article ID: 46422
DELINK URL from Authors Bio
REMOVE Article
Tell A Friend
Leave A Comment!
Download this article in PDF
Report Article!
Search through all the articles:


237 Users Online!!
Related Articles:
Latest Articles:
 
Gardening >> Top 50 Articles on Gardening
Category - >
Advertising Advice Affiliate Programs Automobiles
Be Your Own Mentor Careers Communication Consumers
CopyWriting Crime Domain Names DoT com Entrepreneur Corner
Ebooks Ecommerce Education Email
Entertainment Environment Family Finance And Business
Food & Drink Gardening Health & Fitness Hobbies
Home Business Home Improvement Humour House Holds
Internet And Computers Kiddos and Teens Legal Matters Mail Order
Management Marketing Marriage MetaPhysical
Motivational MultiMedia Multi Level Marketing NewsLetters
Pets Psychology Religion Parenting
Politics Sales Science Search Engine Optimization
Site Promotion Sports Technology Travel
Web Development Web Hosting WeightLoss Women's Corner
Writing Miscellaneous Articles Real Estate Arts And Crafts
Aging


Disclaimer: The information presented and opinions expressed in the articles are those of the authors
and do not necessarily represent the views of bharatbhasha.com and/or its owners.


Copyright © AwareINDIA. All rights reserved || Privacy Policy || Terms Of Use || Author Guidelines || Free Articles
FAQs Link To Us || Submit An Article || Free Downloads|| Contact Us || Site Map  || Advertise with Us ||
Click here for Special webhosting packages for visitors of this website only!
Vastu Shastra

Indian Hosting Services Provided By AwareIndia







Company IDS